Place the vinegar, water garlic, salt and sugar in a large saucepan, and bring it to a boil.
Stir well, so the salt and sugar is completely dissolved. Turn off the heat, and let the vinegar/water mixture sit until it cools to room temperature. Remove the garlic cloves.
While the pickling liquid is cooling, slice the ginger and turmeric into thin, matchstick pieces.
If using the chilis, trim the stems off, but leave them whole.*
Trim the cauliflower into florets, and discard the tough stems.
Place the ginger, turmeric, chilis, and cauliflower into a large saucepan, and cover with water.
Bring the vegetables to a boil, and immediately remove from the heat, and drain in a colander.
Lay the vegetables on a clean towel and let them cool to room temperature.
Place the cooled vegetables in a large glass bowl or jar, and pour the pickling liquid over, so that everything is submerged.
Let sit in the refrigerator for at least 3 days for flavor to develop. The flavors will get even better the longer it sits.
Store in a covered container in the refrigerator for up to 6 weeks.